פרק 1 ANOMALIES AND CURIOSITIES OF MEDICINE.

ANOMALIES AND CURIOSITIES OF MEDICINE. CHAPTER I. GENETIC ANOMALIES. Menstruation has always been of interest, not only to the student of medicine, but to the lay-observer as well. In olden times there were many opinions concerning its causation, all of which, until the era of physiologic investigation, were of superstitious derivation. Believing menstruation to be the natural means of exit of the feminine bodily impurities, the ancients always thought a menstruating woman was to be shunned; her very presence was deleterious to the whole animal economy, as, for instance, among the older writers we find that Pliny remarks: “On the approach of a woman in this state, must will become sour, seeds which are touched by her become sterile, grass withers away, garden plants are parched up, and the fruit will fall from the tree beneath which she sits.” He also says that the menstruating women in Cappadocia were perambulated about the fields to preserve the vegetation from worms and caterpillars. According to Flemming, menstrual blood was believed to be so powerful that the mere touch of a menstruating woman would render vines and all kinds of fruit-trees sterile. Among the indigenous Australians, menstrual superstition was so intense that one of the native blacks, who discovered his wife lying on his blanket during her menstrual period, killed her, and died of terror himself in a fortnight. Hence, Australian women during this season are forbidden to touch anything that men use. Aristotle said that the very look of a menstruating woman would take the polish out of a mirror, and the next person looking in it would be bewitched. Frommann mentions a man who said he saw a tree in Goa which withered because a catamenial napkin was hung on it. Bourke remarks that the dread felt by the American Indians in this respect corresponds with the particulars recited by Pliny. Squaws at the time of menstrual purgation are obliged to seclude themselves, and in most instances to occupy isolated lodges, and in all tribes are forbidden to prepare food for anyone save themselves. It was believed that, were a menstruating woman to step astride a rifle, a bow, or a lance, the weapon would have no utility. Medicine men are in the habit of making a “protective” clause whenever they concoct a “medicine,” which is to the effect that the “medicine” will be effective provided that no woman in this condition is allowed to approach the tent of the official in charge. Empiricism had doubtless taught the ancient husbands the dangers of sexual intercourse during this period, and the after-results of many such connections were looked upon as manifestations of the contagiousness of the evil excretions issuing at this period. Hence at one time menstruation was held in much awe and abhorrence. On the other hand, in some of the eastern countries menstruation was regarded as sacred, and the first menstrual discharge was considered so valuable that premenstrual marriages were inaugurated in order that the first ovum might not be wasted, but fertilized, because it was supposed to be the purest and best for the purpose. Such customs are extant at the present day in some parts of India, despite the efforts of the British Government to suppress them, and descriptions of child-marriages and their evil results have often been given by missionaries. As the advances of physiology enlightened the mind as to the true nature of the menstrual period, and the age of superstition gradually disappeared, the intense interest in menstruation vanished, and now, rather than being held in fear and awe, the physicians of to-day constantly see the results of copulation during this period. The uncontrollable desire of the husband and the mercenary aims of the prostitute furnish examples of modern disregard. The anomalies of menstruation must naturally have attracted much attention, and we find medical literature of all times replete with examples. While some are simply examples of vicarious or compensatory menstruation, and were so explained even by the older writers, there are many that are physiologic curiosities of considerable interest. Lheritier furnishes the oft-quoted history of the case of a young girl who suffered from suppression of menses, which, instead of flowing through the natural channels, issued periodically from vesicles on the leg for a period of six months, when the seat of the discharge changed to an eruption on the left arm, and continued in this location for one year; then the discharge shifted to a sore on the thumb, and at the end of another six months again changed, the next location being on the upper eyelid; here it continued for a period of two years. Brierre de Boismont and Meisner describe a case apparently identical with the foregoing, though not quoting the source. Haller, in a collection of physiologic curiosities covering a period of a century and a half, cites 18 instances of menstruation from the skin. Parrot has also mentioned several cases of this nature. Chambers speaks of bloody sweat occurring periodically in a woman of twenty-seven; the intervals, however, were occasionally but a week or a fortnight, and the exudation was not confined to any one locality. Van Swieten quotes the history of a case of suppression of the menstrual function in which there were convulsive contractions of the body, followed by paralysis of the right arm. Later on, the patient received a blow on the left eye causing amaurosis; swelling of this organ followed, and one month later blood issued from it, and subsequently blood oozed from the skin of the nose, and ran in jets from the skin of the fingers and from the nails. D’Andrade cites an account of a healthy Parsee lady, eighteen years of age, who menstruated regularly from thirteen to fifteen and a half years; the catamenia then became irregular and she suffered occasional hemorrhages from the gums and nose, together with attacks of hematemesis. The menstruation returned, but she never became pregnant, and, later, blood issued from the healthy skin of the left breast and right forearm, recurring every month or two, and finally additional dermal hemorrhage developed on the forehead. Microscopic examination of the exuded blood showed usual constituents present. There are two somewhat similar cases spoken of in French literature. The first was that of a young lady, who, after ten years’ suppression of the menstrual discharge, exhibited the flow from a vesicular eruption on the finger. The other case was quite peculiar, the woman being a prostitute, who menstruated from time to time through spots, the size of a five-franc piece, developing on the breasts, buttocks, back, axilla, and epigastrium. Barham records a case similar to the foregoing, in which the menstruation assumed the character of periodic purpura. Duchesne mentions an instance of complete amenorrhea, in which the ordinary flow was replaced by periodic sweats. Parrot speaks of a woman who, when seven months old, suffered from strumous ulcers, which left cicatrices on the right hand, from whence, at the age of six years, issued a sanguineous discharge with associate convulsions. One day, while in violent grief, she shed bloody tears. She menstruated at the age of eleven, and was temporarily improved in her condition; but after any strong emotion the hemorrhages returned. The subsidence of the bleeding followed her first pregnancy, but subsequently on one occasion, when the menses were a few days in arrears, she exhibited a blood-like exudation from the forehead, eyelids, and scalp. As in the case under D’Andrade’s observation, the exudation was found by microscopic examination to consist of the true constituents of blood. An additional element of complication in this case was the occurrence of occasional attacks of hematemesis. Menstruation from the Breasts.–Being in close sympathy with the generative function, we would naturally expect to find the female mammae involved in cases of anomalous menstruation, and the truth of this supposition is substantiated in the abundance of such cases on record. Schenck reports instances of menstruation from the nipple; and Richter, de Fontechia, Laurentius, Marcellus Donatus, Amatus Lusitanus, and Bierling are some of the older writers who have observed this anomaly. Pare says the wife of Pierre de Feure, an iron merchant, living at Chasteaudun, menstruated such quantities from the breasts each month that several serviettes were necessary to receive the discharge. Cazenave details the history of a case in which the mammary menstruation was associated with a similar exudation from the face, and Wolff saw an example associated with hemorrhage from the fauces. In the Lancet (1840-1841) is an instance of monthly discharge from beneath the left mamma. Finley also writes of an example of mammary hemorrhage simulating menstruation. Barnes saw a case in St. George’s Hospital, London, 1876, in which the young girl menstruated vicariously from the nipple and stomach. In a London discussion there was mentioned the case of a healthy woman of fifty who never was pregnant, and whose menstruation had ceased two years previously, but who for twelve months had menstruated regularly from the nipples, the hemorrhage being so profuse as to require constant change of napkins. The mammae were large and painful, and the accompanying symptoms were those of ordinary menstruation. Boulger mentions an instance of periodic menstrual discharge from beneath the left mamma. Jacobson speaks of habitual menstruation by both breasts. Rouxeau describes amenorrhea in a girl of seventeen, who menstruated from the breast; and Teufard reports a case in which there was reestablishment of menstruation by the mammae at the age of fifty-six. Baker details in full the description of a case of vicarious menstruation from an ulcer on the right mamma of a woman of twenty. At the time he was called to see her she was suffering with what was called “green-sickness.” The girl had never menstruated regularly or freely. The right mamma was quite well developed, flaccid, the nipple prominent, and the superficial veins larger and more tortuous than usual. The patient stated that the right mamma had always been larger than the left. The areola was large and well marked, and 1/4 inch from its outer edge, immediately under the nipple, there was an ulcer with slightly elevated edges measuring about 1 1/4 inches across the base, and having an opening in its center 1/4 inch in diameter, covered with a thin scab. By removing the scab and making pressure at the base of the ulcer, drops of thick, mucopurulent matter were made to exude. This discharge, however, was not offensive to the smell. On March 17, 1846, the breast became much enlarged and congested, as portrayed in Plate 1. The ulcer was much inflamed and painful, the veins corded and deep colored, and there was a free discharge of sanguineous yellowish matter. When the girl’s general health improved and menstruation became more natural, the vicarious discharge diminished in proportion, and the ulcer healed shortly afterward. Every month this breast had enlarged, the ulcer became inflamed and discharged vicariously, continuing in this manner for a few days, with all the accompanying menstrual symptoms, and then dried up gradually. It was stated that the ulcer was the result of the girl’s stooping over some bushes to take an egg from a hen’s nest, when the point of a palmetto stuck in her breast and broke off. The ulcer subsequently formed, and ultimately discharged a piece of palmetto. This happened just at the time of the beginning of the menstrual epoch. The accompanying figures, Plate 1, show the breast in the ordinary state and at the time of the anomalous discharge. Hancock relates an instance of menstruation from the left breast in a large, otherwise healthy, Englishwoman of thirty-one, who one and a half years after the birth of the youngest child (now ten years old) commenced to have a discharge of fluid from the left breast three days before the time of the regular period. As the fluid escaped from the nipple it became changed in character, passing from a whitish to a bloody and to a yellowish color respectively, and suddenly terminating at the beginning of the real flow from the uterus, to reappear again at the breast at the close of the flow, and then lasting two or three days longer. Some pain of a lancinating type occurred in the breast at this time. The patient first discovered her peculiar condition by a stain of blood upon the night-gown on awakening in the morning, and this she traced to the breast. From an examination it appeared that a neglected lacerated cervix during the birth of the last child had given rise to endometritis, and for a year the patient had suffered from severe menorrhagia, for which she was subsequently treated. At this time the menses became scanty, and then supervened the discharge of bloody fluid from the left breast, as heretofore mentioned. The right breast remained always entirely passive. A remarkable feature of the case was that some escape of fluid occurred from the left breast during coitus. As a possible means of throwing light on this subject it may be added that the patient was unusually vigorous, and during the nursing of her two children she had more than the ordinary amount of milk (galactorrhea), which poured from the breast constantly. Since this time the breasts had been quite normal, except for the tendency manifested in the left one under the conditions given. Cases of menstruation through the eyes are frequently mentioned by the older writers. Bellini, Hellwig, and Dodonaeus all speak of menstruation from the eye. Jonston quotes an example of ocular menstruation in a young Saxon girl, and Bartholinus an instance associated with bloody discharge of the foot. Guepin has an example in a case of a girl of eighteen, who commenced to menstruate when three years old. The menstruation was tolerably regular, occurring every thirty-two or thirty-three days, and lasting from one to six days. At the cessation of the menstrual flow, she generally had a supplementary epistaxis, and on one occasion, when this was omitted, she suffered a sudden effusion into the anterior chamber of the eye. The discharge had only lasted two hours on this occasion. He also relates an example of hemorrhage into the vitreous humor in a case of amenorrhea. Conjunctival hemorrhage has been noticed as a manifestation of vicarious menstruation by several American observers. Liebreich found examples of retinal hemorrhage in suppressed menstruation, and Sir James Paget says that he has seen a young girl at Moorfields who had a small effusion of blood into the anterior chamber of the eye at the menstrual period, which became absorbed during the intervals of menstruation. Blair relates the history of a case of vicarious menstruation attended with conjunctivitis and opacity of the cornea. Law speaks of a plethoric woman of thirty who bled freely from the eyes, though menstruating regularly. Relative to menstruation from the ear, Spindler, Paullini, and Alibert furnish examples. In Paullini’s case the discharge is spoken of as very foul, which makes it quite possible that this was a case of middle-ear disease associated with some menstrual disturbance, and not one of true vicarious menstruation. Alibert’s case was consequent upon suppression of the menses. Law cites an instance in a woman of twenty-three, in whom the menstrual discharge was suspended several months. She experienced fulness of the head and bleeding (largely from the ears), which subsequently occurred periodically, being preceded by much throbbing; but the patient finally made a good recovery. Barnes, Stepanoff, and Field adduce examples of this anomaly. Jouilleton relates an instance of menstruation from the right ear for five years, following a miscarriage. Hemorrhage from the mouth of a vicarious nature has been frequently observed associated with menstrual disorders. The Ephemerides, Meibomius, and Rhodius mention instances. The case of Meibomius was that of an infant, and the case mentioned by Rhodius was associated with hemorrhages from the lungs, umbilicus, thigh, and tooth-cavity. Allport reports the history of a case in which there was recession of the gingival margins and alveolar processes, the consequence of amenorrhea. Caso has an instance of menstruation from the gums, and there is on record the description of a woman, aged thirty-two, who had bleeding from the throat preceding menstruation; later the menstruation ceased to be regular, and four years previously, after an unfortunate and violent connection, the menses ceased, and the woman soon developed hemorrhoids and hemoptysis. Henry speaks of a woman who menstruated from the mouth; at the necropsy 207 stones were found in the gall-bladder. Krishaber speaks of a case of lingual menstruation at the epoch of menstruation. Descriptions of menstruation from the extremities are quite numerous. Pechlin offers an example from the foot; Boerhaave from the skin of the hand; Ephemerides from the knee; Albertus from the foot; Zacutus Lusitanus from the left thumb; Bartholinus a curious instance from the hand; and the Ephemerides another during pregnancy from the ankle. Post speaks of a very peculiar case of edema of the arm alternating with the menstrual discharge. Sennert writes of menstruation from the groin associated with hemorrhage from the umbilicus and gums. Moses offers an example of hemorrhage from the umbilicus, doubtless vicarious. Verduc details the history of two cases from the top of the head, and Kerokring cites three similar instances, one of which was associated with hemorrhage from the hand. A peculiar mode is vicarious menstrual hemorrhage through old ulcers, wounds, or cicatrices, and many examples are on record, a few of which will be described. Calder gives an excellent account of menstruation at an ankle-ulcer, and Brincken says he has seen periodical bleeding from the cicatrix of a leprous ulcer. In the Lancet is an account of a case in the Vienna Hospital of simulated stigmata; the scar opened each month and a menstrual flow proceeded therefrom; but by placing a plaster-of-Paris bandage about the wound, sealing it so that tampering with the wound could be easily detected, healing soon ensued, and the imposture was thus exposed. Such would likely be the result of the investigation of most cases of “bleeding wounds” which are exhibited to the ignorant and superstitious for religious purposes. Hogg publishes a report describing a young lady who injured her leg with the broken steel of her crinoline. The wound healed nicely, but always burst out afresh the day preceding the regular period. Forster speaks of a menstrual ulcer of the face, and Moses two of the head. White, quoted by Barnes, cites an instance of vicarious hemorrhage from five deep fissures of the lips in a girl of fourteen; the hemorrhage was periodical and could not be checked. At the advent of each menstrual period the lips became much congested, and the recently-healed menstrual scars burst open anew. Knaggs relates an interesting account of a sequel to an operation for ovarian disease. Following the operation, there was a regular, painless menstruation every month, at which time the lower part of the wound re-opened, and blood issued forth during the three days of the catamenia. McGraw illustrates vicarious menstruation by an example, the discharge issuing from an ovariotomy-scar, and Hooper cites an instance in which the vicarious function was performed by a sloughing ulcer. Buchanan and Simpson describe “amenorrheal ulcers.” Dupuytren speaks of denudation of the skin from a burn, with the subsequent development of vicarious catamenia from the seat of the injury. There are cases on record in which the menstruation occurs by the rectum or the urinary tract. Barbee illustrates this by a case in which cholera morbus occurred monthly in lieu of the regular menstrual discharge. Barrett speaks of a case of vicarious menstruation by the rectum. Astbury says he has seen a case of menstruation by the hemorrhoidal vessels, and instances of relief from plethora by vicarious menstruation in this manner are quite common. Rosenbladt cites an instance of menstruation by the bladder, and Salmuth speaks of a pregnant woman who had her monthly flow by the urinary tract. Ford illustrates this anomaly by the case of a woman of thirty-two, who began normal menstruation at fourteen; for quite a period she had vicarious menstruation from the urinary tract, which ceased after the birth of her last child. The coexistence of a floating kidney in this case may have been responsible for this hemorrhage, and in reading reports of so-called menstruation due consideration must be given to the existence of any other than menstrual derangement before we can accept the cases as true vicarious hemorrhage. Tarnier cites an instance of a girl without a uterus, in whom menstruation proceeded from the vagina. Zacutus Lusitanus relates the history of a case of uterine occlusion, with the flow from the lips of the cervix. There is mentioned an instance of menstruation from the labia. The occurrence of menstruation after removal of the uterus or ovaries is frequently reported. Storer, Clay, Tait, and the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review report cases in which menstruation took place with neither uterus nor ovary. Doubtless many authentic instances like the preceding could be found to-day. Menstruation after hysterectomy and ovariotomy has been attributed to the incomplete removal of the organs in question, yet upon postmortem examination of some cases no vestige of the functional organs in question has been found. Hematemesis is a means of anomalous menstruation, and several instances are recorded. Marcellus Donatus and Benivenius exemplify this with cases. Instances of vicarious and compensatory epistaxis and hemoptysis are so common that any examples would be superfluous. There is recorded an inexplicable case of menstruation from the region of the sternum, and among the curious anomalies of menstruation must be mentioned that reported by Parvin seen in a woman, who, at the menstrual epoch, suffered hemoptysis and oozing of blood from the lips and tongue. Occasionally there was a substitution of a great swelling of the tongue, rendering mastication and articulation very difficult for four or five days. Parvin gives portraits showing the venous congestion and discoloration of the lips. Instances of migratory menstruation, the flow moving periodically from the ordinary passage to the breasts and mammae, are found in the older writers. Salmuth speaks of a woman on whose hands appeared spots immediately before the establishment of the menses. Cases of semimonthly menstruation and many similar anomalies of periodicity are spoken of. The Ephemerides contains an instance of the simulation of menstruation after death, and Testa speaks of menstruation lasting through a long sleep. Instances of black menstruation are to be found, described in full, in the Ephemerides, by Paullini and by Schurig, and in some of the later works; it is possible that an excess of iron, administered for some menstrual disorder, may cause such an alteration in the color of the menstrual fluid. Suppression of menstruation is brought about in many peculiar ways, and sometimes by the slightest of causes, some authentic instances being so strange as to seem mythical. Through the Ephemerides we constantly read of such causes as contact with a corpse, the sight of a serpent or mouse, the sight of monsters, etc. Lightning stroke and curious neuroses have been reported as causes. Many of the older books on obstetric subjects are full of such instances, and modern illustrations are constantly reported. Menstruation in Man.–Periodic discharges of blood in man, constituting what is called “male menstruation,” have been frequently noticed and are particularly interesting when the discharge is from the penis or urethra, furnishing a striking analogy to the female function of menstruation. The older authors quoted several such instances, and Mehliss says that in the ancient days certain writers remarked that catamenial lustration from the penis was inflicted on the Jews as a divine punishment. Bartholinus mentions a case in a youth; the Ephemerides several instances; Zacutus Lusitanus, Salmuth, Hngedorn, Fabricius Hildanus, Vesalius, Mead, and Acta Eruditorum all mention instances. Forel saw menstruation in a man. Gloninger tells of a man of thirty-six, who, since the age of seventeen years and five months, had had lunar manifestations of menstruation. Each attack was accompanied by pains in the back and hypogastric region, febrile disturbance, and a sanguineous discharge from the urethra, which resembled in color, consistency, etc., the menstrual flux. King relates that while attending a course of medical lectures at the University of Louisiana he formed the acquaintance of a young student who possessed the normal male generative organs, but in whom the simulated function of menstruation was periodically performed. The cause was inexplicable, and the unfortunate victim was the subject of deep chagrin, and was afflicted with melancholia. He had menstruated for three years in this manner: a fluid exuded from the sebaceous glands of the deep fossa behind the corona glandis; this fluid was of the same appearance as the menstrual flux. The quantity was from one to two ounces, and the discharge lasted from three to six days. At this time the student was twenty-two years of age, of a lymphatic temperament, not particularly lustful, and was never the victim of any venereal disease. The author gives no account of the after-life of this man, his whereabouts being, unfortunately, unknown or omitted. Vicarious Menstruation in the Male.–This simulation of menstruation by the male assumes a vicarious nature as well as in the female. Van Swieten, quoting from Benivenius, relates a case of a man who once a month sweated great quantities of blood from his right flank. Pinel mentions a case of a captain in the army (M. Regis), who was wounded by a bullet in the body and who afterward had a monthly discharge from the urethra. Pinel calls attention particularly to the analogy in this case by mentioning that if the captain were exposed to fatigue, privation, cold, etc., he exhibited the ordinary symptoms of amenorrhea or suppression. Fournier speaks of a man over thirty years old, who had been the subject of a menstrual evacuation since puberty, or shortly after his first sexual intercourse. He would experience pains of the premenstrual type, about twenty-four hours before the appearance of the flow, which subsided when the menstruation began. He was of an intensely voluptuous nature, and constantly gave himself up to sexual excesses. The flow was abundant on the first day, diminished on the second, and ceased on the third. Halliburton, Jouilleton, and Rayman also record male menstruation. Cases of menstruation during pregnancy and lactation are not rare. It is not uncommon to find pregnancy, lactation, and menstruation coexisting. No careful obstetrician will deny pregnancy solely on the regular occurrence of the menstrual periods, any more than he would make the diagnosis of pregnancy from the fact of the suppression of menses. Blake reports an instance of catamenia and mammary secretion during pregnancy. Denaux de Breyne mentions a similar case. The child was born by a face-presentation. De Saint-Moulin cites an instance of the persistence of menstruation during pregnancy in a woman of twenty-four, who had never been regular; the child was born at term. Gelly speaks of a case in which menstruation continued until the third month of pregnancy, when abortion occurred. Post, in describing the birth of a two-pound child, mentions that menstruation had persisted during the mother’s pregnancy. Rousset reports a peculiar case in which menstruation appeared during the last four months of pregnancy. There are some cases on record of child-bearing after the menopause, as, for instance, that of Pearson, of a woman who had given birth to nine children up to September, 1836; after this the menses appeared only slightly until July, 1838, when they ceased entirely. A year and a half after this she was delivered of her tenth child. Other cases, somewhat similar, will be found under the discussion of late conception. Precocious menstruation is seen from birth to nine or ten years. Of course, menstruation before the third or fourth year is extremely rare, most of the cases reported before this age being merely accidental sanguineous discharges from the genitals, not regularly periodical, and not true catamenia. However, there are many authentic cases of infantile menstruation on record, which were generally associated with precocious development in other parts as well. Billard says that the source of infantile menstruation is the lining membrane of the uterus; but Camerer explains it as due to ligature of the umbilical cord before the circulation in the pulmonary vessels is thoroughly established. In the consideration of this subject, we must bear in mind the influence of climate and locality on the time of the appearance of menstruation. In the southern countries, girls arrive at maturity at an earlier age than their sisters of the north. Medical reports from India show early puberty of the females of that country. Campbell remarks that girls attain the age of puberty at twelve in Siam, while, on the contrary, some observers report the fact that menstruation does not appear in the Esquimaux women until the age of twenty-three, and then is very scanty, and is only present in the summer months. Cases of menstruation commencing within a few days after birth and exhibiting periodical recurrence are spoken of by Penada, Neues Hannoverisehes Magazin, Drummond, Buxtorf, Arnold, The Lancet, and the British Medical Journal. Cecil relates an instance of menstruation on the sixth day, continuing for five days, in which six or eight drams of blood were lost. Peeples cites an instance in Texas in an infant at the age of five days, which was associated with a remarkable development of the genital organs and breasts. Van Swieten offers an example at the first month; the British Medical Journal at the second month; Conarmond at the third month. Ysabel, a young slave girl belonging to Don Carlos Pedro of Havana, began to menstruate soon after birth, and at the first year was regular in this function. At birth her mamma were well developed and her axillae were slightly covered with hair. At the age of thirty-two months she was three feet ten inches tall, and her genitals and mammae resembled those of a girl of thirteen. Her voice was grave and sonorous; her moral inclinations were not known. Deever records an instance of a child two years and seven months old who, with the exception of three months only, had menstruated regularly since the fourth month. Harle speaks of a child, the youngest of three girls, who had a bloody discharge at the age of five months which lasted three days and recurred every month until the child was weaned at the tenth month. At the eleventh month it returned and continued periodically until death, occasioned by diarrhea at the fourteenth month. The necropsy showed a uterus 1 5/8 inches long, the lips of which were congested; the left ovary was twice the size of the right, but displayed nothing strikingly abnormal. Baillot and the British Medical Journal cite instances of menstruation at the fourth month. A case is on record of an infant who menstruated at the age of six months, and whose menses returned on the twenty-eighth day exactly. Clark, Wall, and the Lancet give descriptions of cases at the ninth month. Naegele has seen a case at the eighteenth month, and Schmidt and Colly in the second year. Another case is that of a child, nineteen months old, whose breasts and external genitals were fully developed, although the child had shown no sexual desire, and did not exceed other children of the same age in intellectual development. This prodigy was symmetrically formed and of pleasant appearance. Warner speaks of Sophie Gantz, of Jewish parentage, born in Cincinnati, July 27, 1865, whose menses began at the twenty-third month and had continued regularly up to the time of reporting. At the age of three years and six months she was 38 inches tall, 38 pounds in weight, and her girth at the hip was 33 1/2 inches. The pelvis was broad and well shaped, and measured 10 1/2 inches from the anterior surface of the spinous process of one ilium to that of the other, being a little more than the standard pelvis of Churchill, and, in consequence of this pelvic development, her legs were bowed. The mammae and labia had all the appearance of established puberty, and the pubes and axillae were covered with hair. She was lady-like and maidenly in her demeanor, without unnatural constraint or effrontery. A case somewhat similar, though the patient had the appearance of a little old woman, was a child of three whose breasts were as well developed as in a girl of twenty, and whose sexual organs resembled those of a girl at puberty. She had menstruated regularly since the age of two years. Woodruff describes a child who began to menstruate at two years of age and continued regularly thereafter. At the age of six years she was still menstruating, and exhibited beginning signs of puberty. She was 118 cm. tall, her breasts were developed, and she had hair on the mons veneris. Van der Veer mentions an infant who began menstruating at the early age of four months and had continued regularly for over two years. She had the features and development of a child ten or twelve years old. The external labia and the vulva in all its parts were well formed, and the mons veneris was covered with a full growth of hair. Sir Astley Cooper, Mandelshof, the Ephemerides, Rause, Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, and several others a report instances of menstruation occurring at three years of age. Le Beau describes an infant prodigy who was born with the mammae well formed and as much hair on the mons veneris as a girl of thirteen or fourteen. She menstruated at three and continued to do so regularly, the flow lasting four days and being copious. At the age of four years and five months she was 42 1/2 inches tall; her features were regular, the complexion rosy, the hair chestnut, the eyes blue-gray, her mamma the size of a large orange, and indications that she would be able to bear children at the age of eight. Prideaux cites a case at five, and Gaugirau Casals, a doctor of Agde, has seen a girl of six years who suffered abdominal colic, hemorrhage from the nose, migraine, and neuralgia, all periodically, which, with the association of pruritus of the genitals and engorged mammae, led him to suspect amenorrhea. He ordered baths, and shortly the menstruation appeared and became regular thereafter. Brierre de Boismont records cases of catamenia at five, seven, and eight years; and Skene mentions a girl who menstruated at ten years and five months. She was in the lowest grade of society, living with a drunken father in a tenement house, and was of wretched physical constitution, quite ignorant, and of low moral character, as evinced by her specific vaginitis. Occurring from nine years to the ordinary time of puberty, many cases are recorded. Instances of protracted menstruation are, as a rule, reliable, the individuals themselves being cognizant of the nature of true menstruation, and themselves furnishing the requisite information as to the nature and periodicity of the discharge in question. Such cases range even past the century-mark. Many elaborate statistics on this subject have been gathered by men of ability. Dr. Meyer of Berlin quotes the following:– 28 at 50 years of age, 3 at 57 years of age, 18 ” 51 ” ” ” 3 ” 58 ” ” ” 18 ” 52 ” ” ” 1 ” 59 ” ” ” 11 ” 53 ” ” ” 4 ” 60 ” ” ” 13 ” 54 ” ” ” 4 ” 62 ” ” ” 5 ” 55 ” ” ” 3 ” 63 ” ” ” 4 ” 56 ” ” ” These statistics were from examination of 6000 cases of menstruating women. The last seven were found to be in women in the highest class of society. Mehliss has made the following collection of statistics of a somewhat similar nature– Late Dentition. Late Late Male. Female. Lactation. Menstruation. Between 40 and 50 0 4 0 0 ” 50 ” 60 1 4 2 1 ” 60 ” 70 3 2 1 0 ” 70 ” 80 3 2 0 7 ” 80 ” 90 6 2 0 0 ” 90 ” 100 1 1 0 1 Above 100 ….. 6 1 0 1 — — — — 20 16 3 10 These statistics seem to have been made with the idea of illustrating the marvelous rather than to give the usual prolongation of these functions. It hardly seems possible that ordinary investigation would show no cases of menstruation between sixty and seventy, and seven cases between seventy and eighty; however, in searching literature for such a collection, we must bear in mind that the more extraordinary the instance, the more likely it is that it would be spoken of, as the natural tendency of medical men is to overlook the important ordinary and report the nonimportant extraordinary. Dewees mentions an example of menstruation at sixty-five, and others at fifty-four and fifty-five years. Motte speaks of a case at sixty-one; Ryan and others, at fifty-five, sixty, and sixty-five; Parry, from sixty-six to seventy seven; Desormeux, from sixty to seventy-five; Semple, at seventy and eighty seven; Higgins, at seventy-six; Whitehead, at seventy-seven; Bernstein, at seventy-eight; Beyrat, at eighty-seven; Haller, at one hundred; and highest of all is Blancardi’s case, in which menstruation was present at one hundred and six years. In the London Medical and Surgical Journal, 1831, are reported cases at eighty and ninety-five years. In Good’s System of Nosology there are instances occurring at seventy-one, eighty, and ninety years. There was a woman in Italy whose menstrual function continued from twenty-four to ninety years. Emmet cites an instance of menstruation at seventy, and Brierre de Boismont one of a woman who menstruated regularly from her twenty-fourth year to the time of her death at ninety-two. Strasberger of Beeskow describes a woman who ceased menstruating at forty-two, who remained in good health up to eighty, suffering slight attacks of rheumatism only, and at this late age was seized with abdominal pains, followed by menstruation, which continued for three years; the woman died the next year. This late menstruation had all the sensible characters of the early one. Kennard mentions a negress, aged ninety-one, who menstruated at fourteen, ceased at forty-nine, and at eighty-two commenced again, and was regular for four years, but had had no return since. On the return of her menstruation, believing that her procreative powers were returning, she married a vigorous negro of thirty-five and experienced little difficulty in satisfying his desires. Du Peyrou de Cheyssiole and Bonhoure speak of an aged peasant woman, past ninety-one years of age, who menstruated regularly. Petersen describes a woman of seventy-nine, who on March 26th was seized with uterine pains lasting a few days and terminating with hemorrhagic discharge. On April 23d she was seized again, and a discharge commenced on the 25th, continuing four days. Up to the time of the report, one year after, this menstruation had been regular. There is an instance on record of a female who menstruated every three months during the period from her fiftieth to her seventy-fourth year, the discharge, however, being very slight. Thomas cites an instance of a woman of sixty-nine who had had no menstruation since her forty-ninth year, but who commenced again the year he saw her. Her mother and sister were similarly affected at the age of sixty, in the first case attributable to grief over the death of a son, in the second ascribed to fright. It seemed to be a peculiar family idiosyncrasy. Velasquez of Tarentum says that the Abbess of Monvicaro at the very advanced age of one hundred had a recurrence of catamenia after a severe illness, and subsequently a new set of teeth and a new growth of hair. Late Establishment of Menstruation.–In some cases menstruation never appears until late in life, presenting the same phenomena as normal menstruation. Perfect relates the history of a woman who had been married many years, and whose menstruation did not appear until her forty-seventh year. She was a widow at the time, and had never been pregnant. Up to the time of her death, which was occasioned by a convulsive colic, in her fifty-seventh year, she had the usual prodromes of menstruation followed by the usual discharge. Rodsewitch speaks of a widow of a peasant who menstruated for the first time at the age of thirty-six. Her first coitus took place at the age of fifteen, before any signs of menstruation had appeared, and from this time all through her married life she was either pregnant or suckling. Her husband died when thirty-six years old, and ever since the catamenial flow had shown itself with great regularity. She had borne twins in her second, fourth, and eighth confinement, and altogether had 16 children. Holdefrund in 1836 mentions a case in which menstruation did not commence until the seventieth year, and Hoyer mentions one delayed to the seventy-sixth year. Marx of Krakau speaks of a woman, aged forty-eight, who had never menstruated; until forty-two years old she had felt no symptoms, but at this time pain began, and at forty-eight regular menstruation ensued. At the time of report, four years after, she was free from pain and amenorrhea, and her flow was regular, though scant. She had been married since she was twenty-eight years of age. A somewhat similar case is mentioned by Gregory of a mother of 7 children who had never had her menstrual flow. There are two instances of delayed menstruation quoted: the first, a woman of thirty, well formed, healthy, of good social position, and with all the signs of puberty except menstruation, which had never appeared; the second, a married woman of forty-two, who throughout a healthy connubial life had never menstruated. An instance is known to the authors of a woman of forty who has never menstruated, though she is of exceptional vigor and development. She has been married many years without pregnancy. The medical literature relative to precocious impregnation is full of marvelous instances. Individually, many of the cases would be beyond credibility, but when instance after instance is reported by reliable authorities we must accept the possibility of their occurrence, even if we doubt the statements of some of the authorities. No less a medical celebrity than the illustrious Sir Astley Cooper remarks that on one occasion he saw a girl in Scotland, seven years old, whose pelvis was so fully developed that he was sure she could easily give birth to a child; and Warner’s case of the Jewish girl three and a half years old, with a pelvis of normal width, more than substantiates this supposition. Similar examples of precocious pelvic and sexual development are on record in abundance, and nearly every medical man of experience has seen cases of infantile masturbation. The ordinary period of female maturity is astonishingly late when compared with the lower animals of the same size, particularly when viewed with cases of animal precocity on record. Berthold speaks of a kid fourteen days old which was impregnated by an adult goat, and at the usual period of gestation bore a kid, which was mature but weak, to which it gave milk in abundance, and both the mother and kid grew up strong. Compared with the above, child-bearing by women of eight is not extraordinary. The earliest case of conception that has come to the authors’ notice is a quotation in one of the last century books from von Mandelslo of impregnation at six; but a careful search in the British Museum failed to confirm this statement, and, for the present, we must accept the statement as hearsay and without authority available for reference-purposes. Molitor gives an instance of precocious pregnancy in a child of eight. It was probably the same case spoken of by Lefebvre and reported to the Belgium Academy: A girl, born in Luxemborg, well developed sexually, having hair on the pubis at birth, who menstruated at four, and at the age of eight was impregnated by a cousin of thirty-seven, who was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment for seduction. The pregnancy terminated by the expulsion of a mole containing a well-characterized human embryo. Schmidt’s case in 1779 was in a child who had menstruated at two, and bore a dead fetus when she was but eight years and ten months old. She had all the appearance and development of a girl of seventeen. Kussmaul gives an example of conception at eight. Dodd speaks of a child who menstruated early and continued up to the time of impregnation. She was a hard worker and did all her mother’s washing. Her labor pains did not continue over six hours, from first to the last. The child was a large one, weighing 7 pounds, and afterward died in convulsions. The infant’s left foot had but 3 toes. The young mother at the time of delivery was only nine years and eight months old, and consequently must have been impregnated before the age of nine. Meyer gives an astonishing instance of birth in a Swiss girl at nine. Carn describes a case of a child who menstruated at two, became pregnant at eight, and lived to an advanced age. Ruttel reports conception in a girl of nine, and as far north as St. Petersburg a girl has become a mother before nine years. The Journal de Scavans, 1684, contains the report of the case of a boy, who survived, being born to a mother of nine years. Beck has reported an instance of delivery in a girl a little over ten years of age. There are instances of fecundity at nine years recorded by Ephemerides, Wolffius, Savonarola, and others. Gleaves reports from Wytheville, Va., the history of what he calls the case of the youngest mother in Virginia –Annie H.–who was born in Bland County, July 15, 1885, and, on September 10, 1895, was delivered of a well-formed child weighing 5 pounds. The girl had not the development of a woman, although she had menstruated regularly since her fifth year. The labor was short and uneventful, and, two hours afterward, the child-mother wanted to arise and dress and would have done so had she been permitted. There were no developments of the mammae nor secretion of milk. The baby was nourished through its short existence (as it only lived a week) by its grandmother, who had a child only a few months old. The parents of this child were prosperous, intelligent, and worthy people, and there was no doubt of the child’s age. “Annie is now well and plays about with the other children as if nothing had happened.” Harris refers to a Kentucky woman, a mother at ten years, one in Massachusetts a mother at ten years, eight months, and seventeen days, and one in Philadelphia at eleven years and three months. The first case was one of infantile precocity, the other belonging to a much later period, the menstrual function having been established but a few months prior to conception. All these girls had well-developed pelves, large mammae, and the general marks of womanhood, and bore living children. It has been remarked of 3 very markedly precocious cases of pregnancy that one was the daughter of very humble parents, one born in an almshouse, and the other raised by her mother in a house of prostitution. The only significance of this statement is the greater amount of vice and opportunity for precocious sexual intercourse to which they were exposed; doubtless similar cases under more favorable conditions would never be recognized as such. The instance in the Journal decavans is reiterated in 1775, which is but such a repetition as is found all through medical literature–“new friends with old faces,” as it were. Haller observed a case of impregnation in a girl of nine, who had menstruated several years, and others who had become pregnant at nine, ten, and twelve years respectively. Rowlett, whose case is mentioned by Harris, saw a child who had menstruated the first year and regularly thereafter, and gave birth to a child weighing 7 3/4 pounds when she was only ten years and thirteen days old. At the time of delivery she measured 4 feet 7 inches in height and weighed 100 pounds. Curtis, who is also quoted by Harris, relates the history of Elizabeth Drayton, who became pregnant before she was ten, and was delivered of a full-grown, living male child weighing 8 pounds. She had menstruated once or twice before conception, was fairly healthy during gestation, and had a rather lingering but natural labor. To complete the story, the father of this child was a boy of fifteen. One of the faculty of Montpellier has reported an instance at New Orleans of a young girl of eleven, who became impregnated by a youth who was not yet sixteen. Maygrier says that he knew a girl of twelve, living in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, who was confined. Harris relates the particulars of the case of a white girl who began to menstruate at eleven years and four months, and who gave birth to an over- sized male child on January 21, 1872, when she was twelve years and nine months old. She had an abundance of milk and nursed the child; the labor was of about eighteen hours’ duration, and laceration was avoided. He also speaks of a mulatto girl, born in 1848, who began to menstruate at eleven years and nine months, and gave birth to a female child before she reached thirteen, and bore a second child when fourteen years and seven months old. The child’s father was a white boy of seventeen. The following are some Indian statistics: 1 pregnancy at ten, 6 at eleven, 2 at eighteen, 1 at nineteen. Chevers speaks of a mother at ten and others at eleven and twelve; and Green, at Dacca, performed craniotomy upon the fetus of a girl of twelve. Wilson gives an account of a girl thirteen years old, who gave birth to a full-grown female child after three hours’ labor. She made a speedy convalescence, but the child died four weeks afterward from bad nursing. The lad who acknowledged paternity was nineteen years old. King reports a well-verified case of confinement in a girl of eleven. Both the mother and child did well. Robertson of Manchester describes a girl, working in a cotton factory, who was a mother at twelve; de La Motte mentions pregnancy before twelve; Kilpatrick in a negress, at eleven years and six months; Fox, at twelve; Hall, at twelve; Kinney, at twelve years, ten months, and sixteen days; Herrick, at thirteen years and nine months; Murillo, at thirteen years; Philippart, at fourteen years; Stallcup, at eleven years and nine months; Stoakley, at thirteen years; Walker, at the age of twelve years and eight months; another case, at twelve years and six months; and Williams, at eleven. An editorial article in the Indian Medical Gazette of Sept., 1890, says:– “The appearance of menstruation is held by the great majority of natives of India to be evidence and proof of marriageability, but among the Hindu community it is considered disgraceful that a girl should remain unmarried until this function is established. The consequence is that girls are married at the age of nine or ten years, but it is understood or professed that the consummation of the marriage is delayed until after the first menstrual period. There is, however, too much reason to believe that the earlier ceremony is very frequently, perhaps commonly, taken to warrant resort to sexual intercourse before the menstrual flux has occurred: it may be accepted as true that premenstrual copulation is largely practised under the cover of marriage in this country. “From this practice it results that girls become mothers at the earliest possible period of their lives. A native medical witness testified that in about 20 per cent of marriages children were born by wives of from twelve to thirteen years of age. Cases of death caused by the first act of sexual intercourse are by no means rare. They are naturally concealed, but ever and anon they come to light. Dr. Chevers mentioned some 14 cases of this sort in the last edition of his ‘Handbook of Medical Jurisprudence for India,’ and Dr. Harvey found 5 in the medicolegal returns submitted by the Civil Surgeons of the Bengal Presidency during the years 1870-71-72. “Reform must come from conviction and effort, as in every other case, but meantime the strong arm of the law should be put forth for the protection of female children from the degradation and hurt entailed by premature sexual intercourse. This can easily be done by raising the age of punishable intercourse, which is now fixed at the absurd limit of ten years. Menstruation very seldom appears in native girls before the completed age of twelve years, and if the ‘age of consent’ were raised to that limit, it would not interfere with the prejudices and customs which insist on marriage before menstruation.” In 1816 some girls were admitted to the Paris Maternite as young as thirteen, and during the Revolution several at eleven, and even younger. Smith speaks of a legal case in which a girl, eleven years old, being safely delivered of a living child, charged her uncle with rape. Allen speaks of a girl who became pregnant at twelve years and nine months, and was delivered of a healthy, 9-pound boy before the physician’s arrival; the placenta came away afterward, and the mother made a speedy recovery. She was thought to have had “dropsy of the abdomen,” as the parents had lost a girl of about the same age who was tapped for ascites. The father of the child was a boy only fourteen years of age. Marvelous to relate, there are on record several cases of twins being born to a child mother. Kay reports a case of twins in a girl of thirteen; Montgomery, at fourteen; and Meigs reports the case of a young girl, of Spanish blood, at Maracaibo, who gave birth to a child before she was twelve and to twins before reaching fourteen years. In the older works, the following authors have reported cases of pregnancy before the appearance of menstruation: Ballonius, Vogel, Morgagni, the anatomist of the kidney, Schenck, Bartholinus, Bierling, Zacchias, Charleton, Mauriceau, Ephemerides, and Fabricius Hildanus. In some cases this precocity seems to be hereditary, being transmitted from mother to daughter, bringing about an almost incredible state of affairs, in which a girl is a grandmother about the ordinary age of maternity. Kay says that he had reported to him, on “pretty good” authority, an instance of a Damascus Jewess who became a grandmother at twenty-one years. In France they record a young grandmother of twenty-eight. Ketchum speaks of a negress, aged thirteen, who gave birth to a well-developed child which began to menstruate at ten years and nine months and at thirteen became pregnant; hence the negress was a grandmother at twenty-five years and nine months. She had a second child before she was sixteen, who began to menstruate at seven years and six months, thus proving the inheritance of this precocity, and leaving us at sea to figure what degree of grandmother she may be if she lives to an advanced age. Another interesting case of this nature is that of Mrs. C., born 1854, married in 1867, and who had a daughter ten months after. This daughter married in 1882, and in March, 1883, gave birth to a 9-pound boy. The youthful grandmother, not twenty-nine, was present at the birth. This case was remarkable, as the children were both legitimate. Fecundity in the old seems to have attracted fully as much attention among the older observers as precocity. Pliny speaks of Cornelia, of the family of Serpios, who bore a son at sixty, who was named Volusius Saturnius; and Marsa, a physician of Venice, was deceived in a pregnancy in a woman of sixty, his diagnosis being “dropsy.” Tarenta records the history of the case of a woman who menstruated and bore children when past the age of sixty. Among the older reports are those of Blanchard of a woman who bore a child at sixty years; Fielitz, one at sixty; Ephemerides, one at sixty-two; Rush, one at sixty; Bernstein, one at sixty years; Schoepfer, at seventy years; and, almost beyond belief, Debes cites an instance as taking place at the very advanced age of one hundred and three. Wallace speaks of a woman in the Isle of Orkney bearing children when past the age of sixty. We would naturally expect to find the age of child-bearing prolonged in the northern countries where the age of maturity is later. Capuron cites an example of child-birth in a woman of sixty; Haller, cases at fifty-eight, sixty-three, and seventy; Dewees, at sixty-one; and Thibaut de Chauvalon, in a woman of Martinique aged ninety years. There was a woman delivered in Germany, in 1723, at the age of fifty-five; one at fifty-one in Kentucky; and one in Russia at fifty. Depasse speaks of a woman of fifty-nine years and five months old who was delivered of a healthy male child, which she suckled, weaning it on her sixtieth birthday. She had been a widow for twenty years, and had ceased to menstruate nearly ten years before. In St. Peter’s Church, in East Oxford, is a monument bearing an inscription recording the death in child-birth of a woman sixty-two years old. Cachot relates the case of a woman of fifty-three, who was delivered of a living child by means of the forceps, and a year after bore a second child without instrumental interference. She had no milk in her breasts at the time and no signs of secretion. This aged mother had been married at fifty-two, five years after the cessation of her menstruation, and her husband was a young man, only twenty-four years old. Kennedy reports a delivery at sixty-two years, and the Cincinnati Enquirer, January, 1863, says: “Dr. W. McCarthy was in attendance on a lady of sixty-nine years, on Thursday night last, who gave birth to a fine boy. The father of the child is seventy-four years old, and the mother and child are doing well.” Quite recently there died in Great Britain a Mrs. Henry of Gortree at the age of one hundred and twelve, leaving a daughter of nine years. Mayham saw a woman seventy-three years old who recovered after delivery of a child. A most peculiar case is that of a widow, seventy years old, a native of Garches. She had been in the habit of indulging freely in wine, and, during the last six months, to decided excess. After an unusually prolonged libation she found herself unable to walk home; she sat down by the roadside waiting until she could proceed, and was so found by a young man who knew her and who proposed helping her home. By the time her house was reached night was well advanced, and she invited him to stop over night; finding her more than affable, he stopped at her house over four nights, and the result of his visits was an ensuing pregnancy for Madame. Multiple births in the aged have been reported from authentic sources. The Lancet quotes a rather fabulous account of a lady over sixty-two years of age who gave birth to triplets, making her total number of children 13. Montgomery, Colomb, and Knehel, each, have recorded the birth of twins in women beyond the usual age of the menopause, and there is a case recorded of a woman of fifty-two who was delivered of twins. Impregnation without completion of the copulative act by reason of some malformation, such as occlusion of the vagina or uterus, fibrous and unruptured hymen, etc., has been a subject of discussion in the works of medical jurisprudence of all ages; and cases of conception without entrance of the penis are found in abundance throughout medical literature, and may have an important medicolegal bearing. There is little doubt of the possibility of spermatozoa deposited on the genitalia making progress to the seat of fertilization, as their power of motility and tenacity of life have been well demonstrated. Percy reports an instance in which semen was found issuing from the os uteri eight and one-half days after the last intercourse; and a microscopic examination of this semen revealed the presence of living as well as dead spermatozoa. We have occasional instances of impregnation by rectal coitus, the semen finding its way into an occluded vaginal canal by a fistulous communication. Guillemeau, the surgeon of the French king, tells of a girl of eighteen, who was brought before the French officials in Paris, in 1607, on the citation of her husband of her inability to allow him completion of the marital function. He alleged that he had made several unsuccessful attempts to enter her, and in doing so had caused paraphimosis. On examination by the surgeons she was found to have a dense membrane, of a fibrous nature, entirely occluding the vagina, which they incised. Immediately afterward the woman exhibited morning sickness and the usual signs of pregnancy, and was delivered in four months of a full-term child, the results of an impregnation occasioned by one of the unsuccessful attempts at entrance. Such instances are numerous in the older literature, and a mere citation of a few is considered sufficient here. Zacchias, Amand, Fabricius Hildanus, Graaf, the discoverer of the follicles that bear his name, Borellus, Blegny, Blanchard, Diemerbroeck, Duddell, Mauriceau, a Reyes, Riolan, Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, Wolfius, Walther, Rongier, Ruysch, Forestus, Ephemerides, and Schurig all mention cases of conception with intact hymen, and in which there was no entrance of the penis. Tolberg has an example of hymen integrum after the birth of a fetus five months old, and there is recorded a case of tubal pregnancy in which the hymen was intact. Gilbert gives an account of a case of pregnancy in an unmarried woman, who successfully resisted an attempt at criminal connection and yet became impregnated and gave birth to a perfectly formed female child. The hymen was not ruptured, and the impregnation could not have preceded the birth more than thirty-six weeks. Unfortunately, this poor woman was infected with gonorrhea after the attempted assault. Simmons of St. Louis gives a curious peculiarity of conception, in which there was complete closure of the vagina, subsequent conception, and delivery at term. He made the patient’s acquaintance from her application to him in regard to a malcondition of her sexual apparatus, causing much domestic infelicity. Lawson speaks of a woman of thirty-five, who had been married ten months, and whose husband could never effect an entrance; yet she became pregnant and had a normal labor, despite the fact that, in addition to a tough and unruptured hymen, she had an occluding vaginal cyst. Hickinbotham of Birmingham reports the history of two cases of labor at term in females whose hymens were immensely thickened. H. Grey Edwards has seen a case of imperforate hymen which had to be torn through in labor; yet one single act of copulation, even with this obstacle to entrance, sufficed to impregnate. Champion speaks of a woman who became pregnant although her hymen was intact. She had been in the habit of having coitus by the urethra, and all through her pregnancy continued this practice. Houghton speaks of a girl of twenty-five into whose vagina it was impossible to pass the tip of the first finger on account of the dense cicatricial membrane in the orifice, but who gave birth, with comparative ease, to a child at full term, the only interference necessary being a few slight incisions to permit the passage of the head. Tweedie saw an Irish girl of twenty-three, with an imperforate os uteri, who had menstruated only scantily since fourteen and not since her marriage. She became pregnant and went to term, and required some operative interference. He incised at the point of usual location of the os, and one of his incisions was followed by the flow of liquor amnii, and the head fell upon the artificial opening, the diameter of which proved to be one and a half or two inches; the birth then progressed promptly, the child being born alive. Guerard notes an instance in which the opening barely admitted a hair; yet the patient reached the third month of pregnancy, at which time she induced abortion in a manner that could not be ascertained. Roe gives a case of conception in an imperforate uterus, and Duncan relates the history of a case of pregnancy in an unruptured hymen, characterized by an extraordinary ascent of the uterus. Among many, the following modern observers have also reported instances of pregnancy with hymen integrum: Braun, 3 cases; Francis, Horton, Oakman, Brill, 2 cases; Burgess, Haig, Hay, and Smith. Instances in which the presence of an unruptured hymen has complicated or retarded actual labor are quite common, and until the membrane is ruptured by external means the labor is often effectually obstructed. Among others reporting cases of this nature are Beale, Carey, Davis, Emond Fetherston, Leisenring, Mackinlay, Martinelli, Palmer, Rousseau, Ware, and Yale. There are many cases of stricture or complete occlusion of the vagina, congenital or acquired from cicatricial contraction, obstructing delivery, and in some the impregnation seems more marvelous than cases in which the obstruction is only a thin membranous hymen. Often the obstruction is so dense as to require a large bistoury to divide it, and even that is not always sufficient, and the Cesarean operation only can terminate the obstructed delivery; we cannot surmise how conception could have been possible. Staples records a case of pregnancy and parturition with congenital stricture of the vagina. Maisonneuve mentions the successful practice of a Cesarean operation in a case of congenital occlusion of the vagina forming a complete obstruction to delivery. Verdile records an instance of imperforate vagina in which rectovaginal wall was divided and the delivery effected through the rectum and anus. Lombard mentions an observation of complete occlusion of the vagina in a woman, the mother of 4 living children and pregnant for the fifth time. Thus, almost incredible to relate, it is possible for a woman to become a mother of a living child and yet preserve all the vaginal evidences of virginity. Cole describes a woman of twenty-four who was delivered without the rupture of the hymen, and Meek remarks on a similar case. We can readily see that, in a case like that of Verdile, in which rectal delivery is effected, the hymen could be left intact and the product of conception be born alive. A natural sequence to the subject of impregnation without entrance is that of artificial impregnation. From being a matter of wonder and hearsay, it has been demonstrated as a practical and useful method in those cases in which, by reason of some unfortunate anatomic malformation on either the male or the female side, the marriage is unfruitful. There are many cases constantly occurring in which the birth of an heir is a most desirable thing in a person’s life. The historic instance of Queen Mary of England, whose anxiety and efforts to bear a child were the subject of public comment and prayers, is but an example of a fact that is occurring every day, and doubtless some of these cases could be righted by the pursuance of some of the methods suggested. There have been rumors from the beginning of the century of women being impregnated in a bath, from contact with cloths containing semen, etc., and some authorities in medical jurisprudence have accepted the possibility of such an occurrence. It is not in the province of this work to speculate on what may be, but to give authoritative facts, from which the reader may draw his own deductions. Fertilization of plants has been thought to have been known in the oldest times, and there are some who believe that the library at Alexandria must have contained some information relative to it. The first authentic account that we have of artificial impregnation is that of Schwammerdam, who in 1680 attempted it without success by the fecundation of the eggs of fish. Roesel, his scholar, made an attempt in 1690, but also failed; and to Jacobi, in 1700, belongs the honor of success. In 1780, Abbe Spallanzani, following up the success of Jacobi, artificially impregnated a bitch, who brought forth in sixty-two days 3 puppies, all resembling the male. The illustrious John Hunter advised a man afflicted with hypospadias to impregnate his wife by vaginal injections of semen in water with an ordinary syringe, and, in spite of the simplicity of this method, the attempt was followed by a successful issue. Since this time, Nicholas of Nancy and Lesueur have practised the simple vaginal method; while Gigon, d’Angouleme (14 cases), Girault (10 cases), Marion Sims, Thomas, Salmon, Pajot, Gallard, Courty, Roubaud, Dehaut, and others have used the more modern uterine method with success. A dog-breeder, by syringing the uterus of a bitch, has succeeded in impregnating her. Those who are desirous of full information on this subject, as regards the modus operandi, etc., are referred to Girault; this author reports in full several examples. One case was that of a woman, aged twenty-five, afflicted with blenorrhea, who, chagrined at not having issue, made repeated forcible injections of semen in water for two months, and finally succeeded in impregnating herself, and was delivered of a living child. Another case was that of a female, aged twenty-three, who had an extra long vaginal canal, probably accounting for the absence of pregnancy. She made injections of semen, and was finally delivered of a child. He also reports the case of a distinguished musician who, by reason of hypospadias, had never impregnated his wife, and had resorted to injections of semen with a favorable result. This latter case seems hardly warranted when we consider that men afflicted with hypospadias and epispadias have become fathers. Percy gives the instance of a gentleman whom he had known for some time, whose urethra terminated a little below the frenum, as in other persons, but whose glans bulged quite prominently beyond it, rendering urination in the forward direction impossible. Despite the fact that this man could not perform the ejaculatory function, he was the father of three children, two of them inheriting his penile formation. The fundamental condition of fecundity being the union of a spermatozoid and an ovum, the object of artificial impregnation is to further this union by introducing semen directly to the fundus of the uterus. The operation is quite simple and as follows: The husband, having been found perfectly healthy, is directed to cohabit with his wife, using a condom. The semen ejaculated is sucked up by an intrauterine syringe which has been properly disinfected and kept warm. The os uteri is now exposed and wiped off with some cotton which has been dipped in an antiseptic fluid; introduced to the fundus of the uterus, and some drops of the fluid slowly expressed into the uterus. The woman is then kept in bed on her back. This operation is best carried out immediately before or immediately after the menstrual epoch, and if not successful at the first attempt should be repeated for several months. At the present day artificial impregnation in pisciculture is extensively used with great success. {footnote} The following extraordinary incident of accidental impregnation, quoted from the American Medical Weekly by the Lancet, is given in brief, not because it bears any semblance of possibility, but as a curious example from the realms of imagination in medicine. L. G. Capers of Vicksburg, Miss., relates an incident during the late Civil War, as follows: A matron and her two daughters, aged fifteen and seventeen years, filled with the enthusiasm of patriotism, stood ready to minister to the wounds of their countrymen in their fine residence near the scene of the battle of R—-, May 12, 1863, between a portion of Grant’s army and some Confederates. During the fray a gallant and noble young friend of the narrator staggered and fell to the earth; at the same time a piercing cry was heard in the house near by. Examination of the wounded soldier showed that a bullet had passed through the scrotum and carried away the left testicle. The same bullet had apparently penetrated the left side of the abdomen of the elder young lady, midway between the umbilicus and the anterior superior spinous process of the ilium, and had become lost in the abdomen. This daughter suffered an attack of peritonitis, but recovered in two months under the treatment administered. Marvelous to relate, just two hundred and seventy-eight days after the reception of the minie-ball, she was delivered of a fine boy, weighing 8 pounds, to the surprise of herself and the mortification of her parents and friends. The hymen was intact, and the young mother strenuously insisted on her virginity and innocence. About three weeks after this remarkable birth Dr. Capers was called to see the infant, and the grandmother insisted that there was something wrong with the child’s genitals. Examination showed a rough, swollen, and sensitive scrotum, containing some hard substance. He operated, and extracted a smashed and battered minie-ball. The doctor, after some meditation, theorized in this manner: He concluded that this was the same ball that had carried away the testicle of his young friend, that had penetrated the ovary of the young lady, and, with some spermatozoa upon it, had impregnated her. With this conviction he approached the young man and told him the circumstances; the soldier appeared skeptical at first, but consented to visit the young mother; a friendship ensued which soon ripened into a happy marriage, and the pair had three children, none resembling, in the same degree as the first, the heroic pater familias. Interesting as are all the anomalies of conception, none are more so than those of unconscious impregnation; and some well-authenticated cases can be mentioned. Instances of violation in sleep, with subsequent pregnancy as a result, have been reported in the last century by Valentini, Genselius, and Schurig. Reports by modern authorities seem to be quite scarce, though there are several cases on record of rape during anesthesia, followed by impregnation. Capuron relates a curious instance of a woman who was raped during lethargy, and who subsequently became pregnant, though her condition was not ascertained until the fourth month, the peculiar abdominal sensation exciting suspicion of the true nature of the case, which had previously been thought impossible. There is a record of a case of a young girl of great moral purity who became pregnant without the slightest knowledge of the source; although, it might be remarked, such cases must be taken “cum grano salis.” Cases of conception without the slightest sexual desire or pleasure, either from fright, as in rape, or naturally deficient constitution, have been recorded; as well as conception during intoxication and in a hypnotic trance, which latter has recently assumed a much mooted legal aspect. As far back as 1680, Duverney speaks of conception without the slightest sense of desire or pleasure on the part of the female. Conception with Deficient Organs.–Having spoken of conception with some obstructive interference, conception with some natural or acquired deficiency of the functional, organic, or genital apparatus must be considered. It is a well-known fact that women exhibiting rudimentary development of the uterus or vagina are still liable to become pregnant, and many such cases have been recorded; but the most peculiar cases are those in which pregnancy has appeared after removal of some of the sexual apparatus. Pregnancy going to term with a successful delivery frequently follows the performance of ovariotomy with astonishing rapidity. Olier cites an instance of ovariotomy with a pregnancy of twins three months afterward, and accouchement at term of two well-developed boys. Polaillon speaks of a pregnancy consecutive to ovariotomy, the accouchement being normal at term. Crouch reports a case of successful parturition in a patient who had previously undergone ovariotomy by a large incision. Parsons mentions a case of twin pregnancy two years after ovariotomy attended with abnormal development of one of the children. Cutter speaks of a case in which a woman bore a child one year after the performance of ovariotomy, and Pippingskold of two cases of pregnancy after ovariotomy in which the stump as well as the remaining ovary were cauterized. Brown relates a similar instance with successful delivery. Bixby, Harding, Walker (1878-9), and Mears all report cases, and others are not at all rare. In the cases following shortly after operation, it has been suggested that they may be explained by the long retention of the ova in the uterus, deposited them prior to operation. In the presence of such facts one can but wonder if artificial fecundation of an ovum derived from another woman may ever be brought about in the uterus of a sterile woman! Conception Soon After a Preceding Pregnancy.–Conception sometimes follows birth (or abortion) with astonishing rapidity, and some women seem for a period of their lives either always pregnant or with infants at their breasts. This prolificity is often alluded to, and is not confined to the lower classes, as often stated, but is common even among the nobility. Illustrative of this, we have examples in some of the reigning families in Europe to-day. A peculiar instance is given by Sparkman in which a woman conceived just forty hours after abortion. Rice mentions the case of a woman who was confined with her first child, a boy, on July 31, 1870, and was again delivered of another child on June 4, 1871. She had become pregnant twenty-eight days after delivery. He also mentions another case of a Mrs. C., who, at the age of twenty-three, gave birth to a child on September 13, 1880, and bore a second child on July 2, 1881. She must have become pregnant twenty-one days after the delivery of her first child. Superfetation has been known for many centuries; the Romans had laws prescribing the laws of succession in such cases, and many medical writers have mentioned it. Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote of it, the former at some length. Pliny speaks of a slave who bore two infants, one resembling the master, the other a man with whom she had intercourse, and cites the case as one of superfetation. Schenck relates instances, and Zacchias, Velchius, and Sinibaldus mention eases. Pare seemed to be well conversant with the possibility as well as the actuality of superfetation; and Harvey reports that a certain maid, gotten with child by her master, in order to hide her knavery came to London in September, where she lay in by stealth, and being recovered, returned home. In December of the same year she was unexpectedly delivered of another child, a product of superfetation, which proclaimed the crime that she had so cunningly concealed before. Marcellus Donatus, Goret, Schacher, and Mauriceau mention superfetation. In the Academie des Sciences, at Paris, in 1702, there was mentioned the case of a woman who was delivered of a boy; in the placenta was discovered a sort of bladder which was found to contain a female fetus of the age of from four to five months; and in 1729, before the same society, there was an instance in which two fetuses were born a day apart, one aged forty days and the other at full term. From the description, it does not seem possible that either of these were blighted twin pregnancies. Ruysch gives an account of a surgeon’s wife at Amsterdam, in 1686, who was delivered of a strong child which survived, and, six hours after, of a small embryo, the funis of which was full of hydatids and the placenta as large and thick as one of three months. Ruysch accompanies his description with an illustrative figure. At Lyons, in 1782, Benoite Franquet was unexpectedly delivered of a child seven months old; three weeks later she experienced symptoms indicative of the existence of another fetus, and after five months and sixteen days she was delivered of a remarkably strong and healthy child. Baudeloque speaks of a case of superfetation observed by Desgranges in Lyons in 1780. After the birth of the first infant the lochia failed to flow, no milk appeared in the breasts, and the belly remained large. In about three weeks after the accouchement she had connection with her husband, and in a few days felt fetal movements. A second child was born at term, sixty-eight days after the first; and in 1782 both children were living. A woman of Arles was delivered on November 11, 1796, of a child at term; she had connection with her husband four days after; the lochia stopped, and the milk did not flow after this intercourse. About one and a half months after this she felt quickening again, and naturally supposed that she had become impregnated by the first intercourse after confinement; but five months after the first accouchement she was delivered of another child at term, the result of a superfetation. Milk in abundance made its appearance, and she was amply able to nourish both children from the breasts. Lachausse speaks of a woman of thirty who bore one child on April 30, 1748, and another on September 16th in the same year. Her breasts were full enough to nourish both of the children. It might be remarked in comment on this case that, according to a French authority, the woman died in 1755, and on dissection was found to have had a double uterus. A peculiar instance of superfetation was reported by Langmore in which there was an abortion of a fetus between the third and fourth months, apparently dead some time, and thirteen hours later a second fetus; an ovum of about four weeks and of perfect formation was found adherent near the fundus. Tyler Smith mentions a lady pregnant for the first time who miscarried at five months and some time afterward discharged a small clot containing a perfectly fresh and healthy ovum of about four weeks’ formation. There was no sign of a double uterus, and the patient menstruated regularly during pregnancy, being unwell three weeks before the abortion. Harley and Tanner speak of a woman of thirty-eight who never had borne twins, and who aborted a fetus of four months’ gestation; serious hemorrhage accompanied the removal of the placenta, and on placing the hand in the uterine cavity an embryo of five or six weeks was found inclosed in a sac and floating in clear liquor amnii. The patient was the mother of nine children, the youngest of which was three years old. Young speaks of a woman who three months previously had aborted a three months’ fetus, but a tumor still remained in the abdomen, the auscultation of which gave evidence of a fetal heart-beat. Vaginal examination revealed a dilatation of the os uteri of at least one inch and a fetal head pressing out; subsequently a living fetus of about six months of age was delivered. Severe hemorrhage complicated the case, but was controlled, and convalescence speedily ensued. Huse cites an instance of a mother bearing a boy on November 4, 1834, and a girl on August 3, 1835. At birth the boy looked premature, about seven months old, which being the case, the girl must have been either a superfetation or a seven months’ child also. Van Bibber of Baltimore says he met a young lady who was born five months after her sister, and who was still living. The most curious and convincing examples of superfetation are those in which children of different colors, either twins or near the same age, are born to the same woman,–similar to that exemplified in the case of the mare who was covered first by a stallion and a quarter of an hour later by an ass, and gave birth at one parturition to a horse and a mule. Parsons speaks of a case at Charleston, S.C., in 1714, of a white woman who gave birth to twins, one a mulatto and the other white. She confessed that after her husband left her a negro servant came to her and forced her to comply with his wishes by threatening her life. Smellie mentions the case of a black woman who had twins, one child black and the other almost white. She confessed having had intercourse with a white overseer immediately after her husband left her bed. Dewees reports a similar case. Newlin of Nashville speaks of a negress who bore twins, one distinctly black with the typical African features, while the other was a pretty mulatto exhibiting the distinct characters of the Caucasian race. Both the parents were perfect types of the black African negro. The mother, on being questioned, frankly acknowledged that shortly after being with her husband she had lain a night with a white man. In this case each child had its own distinct cord and placenta. Archer gives facts illustrating and observations showing: “that a white woman, by intercourse with a white man and negro, may conceive twins, one of which shall be white and the other a mulatto; and that, vice versa, a black woman, by intercourse with a negro and a white man, may conceive twins, one of which shall be a negro and the other a mulatto.” Wight narrates that he was called to see a woman, the wife of an East Indian laborer on the Isle of Trinidad, who had been delivered of a fetus 6 inches long, about four months old, and having a cord of about 18 inches in length. He removed the placenta, and in about half an hour the woman was delivered of a full-term white female child. The first child was dark, like the mother and father, and the mother denied any possibility of its being a white man’s child; but this was only natural on her part, as East Indian husbands are so intensely jealous that they would even kill an unfaithful wife. Both the mother and the mysterious white baby are doing well. Bouillon speaks of a negress in Guadeloupe who bore twins, one a negro and the other a mulatto. She had sexual congress with both a negro and a white man. Delmas, a surgeon of Rouen, tells of a woman of thirty-six who was delivered in the hospital of his city on February 26, 1806, of two children, one black and the other a mulatto. She had been pregnant eight months, and had had intercourse with a negro twice about her fourth month of pregnancy, though living with the white man who first impregnated her. Two placentae were expelled some time after the twins, and showed a membranous junction. The children died shortly after birth. Pregnancy often takes place in a unicorn or bicorn uterus, leading to similar anomalous conditions. Galle, Hoffman, Massen, and Sanger give interesting accounts of this occurrence, and Ross relates an instance of triple pregnancy in a double uterus. Cleveland describes a discharge of an anomalous deciduous membrane during pregnancy which was probably from the unimpregnated half of a double uterus

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s