״IN HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY, America’s first great labor leader, Samuel Gompers, recalled an experience in early childhood that was to have a profound effect in shaping his lifelong efforts on behalf of working men and women. “One of my most vivid early recollections is the great trouble that came to the silk weavers when machinery was invented to replace their skill and take their jobs. No thought was given to these men whose trade was gone. Misery and suspense filled the neighborhood with a depressing air of dread. The narrow streets echoed with the tramp of men walking in groups with no work to do.”^ From the very beginning of the Industrial Revolution, machines and inanimate forms of energy have been used to boost production and reduce the amount of labor required to make a product. As early as the 1880s, manufacturers such as the American Tobacco Company, Quaker Oats, Pillsbury, Diamond Match, Campbell Soup, Procter & Gamble, H. J. Heinz, and Eastman Kodak began experimenting with “continuous-process” machinery in manufacturing.״

״This machinery required little human tending and turned out a massive volume of goods more or less automatically. Workers merely fed materials into it and let the equipment shape, mold, and package the product.

In 1881 James Bonsack patented a cigarette machine that rolled cigarettes automatically without human labor The machine “swept the tobacco onto the ‘endless tape,’ compressed it into a round form, wrapped it with tape and paper, carried it to a ‘covering tube’ which shaped the cigarette, pasted the paper, and then cut the resulting rod into the length of cigarette desired.” By the late 1880s the continuous-process machine was producing 120,000 cigarettes per day. Most skilled hand-workers were only able to make at best some 3,000 cigarettes per day. So productive was the new equipment that fewer than thirty machines could fulfill the entire national demand for cigarettes in 1885, using only a handful of workers.״

״The Diamond Match Company introduced continuous-process machinery in 1881, and was soon producing billions of matches automatically. About the same time, Procter & Gamble introduced continuous manufacturing into the production of soap, making its new product. Ivory, a household name within less than a decade. George Eastman invented a continuous-process method for making photographic negatives, propelling his company to national prominence. Pillsbury and other grain companies introduced continuous-process machinery into milling, producing high-quality flour in large volume and at a low cost, again using far less labor in the process.^

The continuous-process technologies introduced a radical new approach to manufacturing. The idea of automatic machinery producing goods with little or no human input was no longer just a Utopian dream. Today, the new information and communication technologies are making possible far more sophisticated continuous-process manufacturing.״

ציטוט מתוך: Jeremy‏, Rifkin. ״The end of work : the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post-market era.״ New York : G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995. iBooks.
‫יתכן שחומר זה מוגן על-ידי זכויות יוצרים.‬

ציטוט מתוך: Jeremy‏, Rifkin. ״The end of work : the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post-market era.״ New York : G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995. iBooks.
‫יתכן שחומר זה מוגן על-ידי זכויות יוצרים.‬

ציטוט מתוך: Jeremy‏, Rifkin. ״The end of work : the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post-market era.״ New York : G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995. iBooks.
‫יתכן שחומר זה מוגן על-ידי זכויות יוצרים.‬

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