By greatly increasing the productivity of dairy cows, genetically engineered BGH threatens the livelihood of thousands of dairy farmers in North America, Europe, and elsewhere. Most industrial nations are already overproducing milk. Faced with a milk glut, depressed prices, and ineffective demand, the United States and other industrial nations have long pursued a policy of price supports and subsidies to keep dairy farmers in business. Now, with the commercial introduction of BGH in the United States, even more milk will be produced, requiring even greater price supports. According to a report prepared by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the Clinton administration, the government’s milk-support program will increase by more than $ll6,000,000 a year in 1995 because of the introduction of BGH into the market. Another study conducted several years ago predicted that within three years of the introduction of BGH into the marketplace, upwards of one third of all remaining U.S. dairy farmers may be forced out of business because of over- production, falling prices, and dwindling consumer demand. Many industry analysts argue that BGH will benefit the giant corporate dairy farms in California at the expense of small family farms in states like Wisconsin and Minnesota. The large operations are highly automated and can produce more milk with fewer cows, signifi- cantly reducing the amount of human labor required to get the milk to market. To increase productivity even further, researchers are currently experimenting with insertion of a revved-up growth-hormone gene directly into the biological code of the animal at the embryonic stage of development so that the adult animal will produce more milk without needing injections. Swine producers are experimenting with a porcine growth hormone (PST) designed to increase feed efficiency and weight gain in pigs. According to a recent report published by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), “Pigs administered porcine somatotropin (PST) for a period of 30 to 77 days show increased average daily weight gains of approximately 10 to 20 percent improved feed efficiency of 15 to 35 percent, decreased adipose (fat) tissue mass and lipid formation rates of as much as 50 to 80 percent … without adversely affecting the quality of the meat. At the University of Adelaide in Australia, scientists have succeeded in producing genetically engineered pigs that are 30 percent more efficient and brought to market seven weeks earlier than normal pigs. A faster production schedule will mean less labor is required to produce a pound of flesh. The Australian Commonwealth Scientific


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