traditional organizational pyramids and transferring more and more decision-making responsibilities to networks and teams. The re- engineering phenomenon is forcing a fundamental overhaul in the way business is handled, and, in the process, deeply cutting into employment rolls, eliminating millions of jobs and hundreds of job categories. While unskilled and semiskilled jobs continue to be cut by the intro- duction of new information and communication technologies, other positions in the corporate hierarchy are also being threatened with extinction. No group is being harder hit than middle management. Traditionally, middle managers have been responsible for coordinating the flow up and down the organizational ladder. With the introduction of sophisticated new computer technologies, these jobs become increasingly unnecessary and costly. The new information and communication technologies have both increased the volume and accelerated the flow of activity at every level of society. The compression of time requires quicker responses and faster decision making to remain competitive. In the emerging nanosecond culture, the traditional control and coordination functions of management are woefully slow and utterly incapable of responding, in real time, to the speed and volume of information coming into the organization. In the information era, “time” is the critical commodity, and corporations bogged down by old-fashioned hierarchical management schemes cannot hope to make decisions fast enough to keep up with the flow of information that requires resolution. Today, a growing number of companies are deconstructing their organizational hierarchies and eliminating more and more middle management by compressing several jobs into a single process. They are then using the computer to perform the coordination functions previously carried out by many people often working in separate departments and locations within the company. Gary Loveman says that the restructuring of the corporation is fast eliminating middle management from the organizational chart. He points out that while better jobs are being created for a fortunate few at the top levels of management, the men and women in “garden variety middle manage- ment jobs” are “getting crucified” by corporate re-engineering and the introduction of sophisticated new information and communication technologies. Departments create divisions and borders that inevitably slow down the decision-making process. Companies are eliminating those borders by reassigning personnel into networks or teams that can work


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